Latin/Expert Profile


Classical Languages (Greek, Latin). Conversant with Classical Greek and all forms of the Latin language: classical, mediaeval, and modern.

Experience in the area

I have 50 years of teaching at all levels of Latin from high school through university postgraduate. I read, write, and speak Latin daily.


American Classical League.


A.B., M.A., D.Phil. (h.c.) in Classical Languages (Greek, Latin).

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Recent Answers from Martin

2017-02-25 Pronunciation of the Diphthong "Ae":

In Classical Latin, "ae" is a diphthong, that is, a vowel composed of two sounds, the "a" and the "e."  The diphthong was pronounced as in the modern English word "aye" ("ah" with a glide to "ay" at the

2016-12-24 Seneca Epistle I:

A relatively literal rendering would be:  "And so great is the stupidity of mortal men that [those things] which are the least important and worth the least, [and] certainly replaceable, they allow to

2016-08-05 Amabo Te:

"Amo" is used in colloquial Latin without the literal force of "love," in a weakened sense approximating "thank."  "Amabo te" is a stock phrase documented already in the comedies of Terence, who wrote

2016-07-06 Latin Nomenclature - Trinomial:

1) "Dumetorum" is the genitive plural of "dumetum" and means:  of the thickets or brambles.  Genitives of description are often used in species names for the discoverer, e.g., Psittacus alexandri (Alexander's

2016-06-26 Legal Latin:

The "line" to which you are referring must be a macron, a vertical line that is used over vowels long by quantity, commonly called "long marks."  These are used only as a tool for learning Latin and are


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